MILITARY INSTALLATION PLANNING
■ Protecting Air and Range Operations
■ Joint Land Use Planning
Solin and Associates, Inc. (SAI) has been honored with two statewide awards for the firm’s planning projects for Whiting Naval Air Station as noted below. Solin was a subcontractor to Tetra Tech for the planning work program for preparing the Whiting Naval Air Station Joint Land Use Study (JLUS) in Santa Rosa County. Subsequently, SAI was selected as the prime contractor for the preparation of a Land Development Code amendment to implement the JLUS
- Award for Outstanding Innovation for Plans Preventing Military Air Field Encroachment, Florida Planning and Zoning Association, 2005
- Award of Excellence, Plans Preventing Military Air Field Encroachment, Florida Chapter of the American Planning Association, 2004.
RESOLVING CONFLICTS BETWEEN MILITARY OPERATIONS AND CIVILIAN LAND USE ACTIVITIES
[From Solin and Associates Inc. (SAI) Files: Excerpt from an Interim Report by Les Solin]
Outline prepared by Solin and Associates, Inc. (SAI) identifies measures for resolving conflicts between military operations and civilian land use activities as typically addressed in the process of preparing a Joint Land Use Study (JLUS) and preparing a Military Influenced Land (MIL) Comprehensive Plan Element/Sub-element:
- Military Influenced Lands (MIL) Comprehensive Plan Element/Sub-element. In 2004 the Florida Legislature enacted section 163.3177(6)(a), F.S., requiring that local government comprehensive plans include surveys, studies, and data that addressing the compatibility of uses on lands adjacent to or closely proximate to military installations, and must include the criteria that will be used to achieve compatibility of adjacent or closely proximate lands with military installations. A Joint Land Use Study (JLUS) process documents considerations in preparing a “Military Influenced Lands” (MIL) element or sub-element of a local government comprehensive plan. The element/sub-element may include a series of overlay maps designating policies for promoting land use compatibility within areas impacted by military operations or which land use activities may potentially adversely impact military operations.
Solin and Associates, Inc. has undertaken planning initiatives reviewing impacts of air and range operations, flight patterns and land use patterns at military installations, including the following adverse impacts of: 1) Military operations on civilian land use activities; and 2) Civilian land use activities on military operations:
Military Impacts on Civilian Land, Facilities, and Citizens
√ Noise (≥65 Decibels): Disrupts daily activities & impacts health / facilities
√ Low flying aircraft: Produces noise & accident potential
√ Accident potential: Threatens public safety, loss of life & property
√ Controlled firing and Drops: Disruption of civilian activity; Noise & Vibration
Civilian Impacts on Military Operations
√ Incompatible development: Intensifies public safety hazard and complaints
▪ Places of Assembly
▪ High-density residential
▪ Tall structures
√ Excessive lighting: Interference with night training missions
√ Line of sight obstructions: Interfere with aircraft and instrumentation
√ Electronic transmissions interference: Impedes radar, communication, instrumentation, surveillance
- Comprehensive Plan Military Influenced Lands (MIL) Element Data Inventory and Analysis: This portion of the outline identifies an approach by SAI to preparing a Comprehensive Plan “Military Influenced Lands” (MIL) Element or Sub-element for managing conflicts between military operations and civilian land use activities.
a. Describe Military Missions and Operations Impacting Local Government
i. Facilities Impacting Community: Airfield or Range
ii. Type Activity/Operation (Flights Arriving-Departing Specific Runway & Type Aircraft/Drop Zone/Gunnery Range/Other operations, tests and maintenance
iii. Character of Impact on Civilians & Civilian Property (Noise in Flight, Impulse Noise; Public safety threatened, Limited use of land or Structure, Secondary impacts such as Impacts to Health), Timing & severity of impacts
b. Describe Civilian Land Use and Activities Encroaching on Military Operations and possible remedial actions after considering the JLUS analysis, recommendations, and local discussion and interaction with the military representative on the Planning Board.
i. Civilian Land Use within the following military operations area:
▪ Clear Zone
▪ Accident Potential Zone I
▪ Accident Potential Zone II
▪ Noise Contours in decibels: ≥65-69; 70-74; 75-84; ≥85
▪ Cruise Missile Corridors
▪ Supersonic Corridor
▪ Restricted Areas and Danger Zones Off-Base: such as Drop Zones, Aerial Gunnery Ranges, etc.
ii. Civilian tall structures and potential height thresholds within the following military operations area:
▪ Clear Zone and APZ I & II
▪ FAA & Military Approach/Departure Height Thresholds
▪ Military Training Routes
▪ Low Level Training Routes: Fixed Wing & Helicopters
▪ Restricted Areas for Controlled Firing & Drops/Danger Zones Off-Base
▪ Obstructions to Lines of Sight: ex: Terminal Instrument Procedures Routes (TERPS)
iii. Marina construction & boat traffic at controlled firing areas
iv. Outdoor lighting illuminate night sky & adversely impact night vision training.
v. Electronic transmissions over the 5.4 to 5.9 GHz bandwidth of RF spectrum adversely impacts operations.
- Comprehensive Plan Military Influence Area Sub-element Goals, Objectives, and Policies
a. Possible Goals to Consider and Adapt to Local Conditions
i. Region’s Role and Function in the Nation’s Defense and the NW Florida Economy: Promote the national defense and cultivate continuance of the military installation’s role and function as a major contributor to the nation’s defense and the region and the locale.
ii. Coordination, Partnerships, and Management Initiatives to Promote Land Use Compatibility: Enhance land use compatibility within every local government impacted by the military installation by coordinating, forming partnerships, and management initiatives to ensure long-term viability of the military installation’s role as well as its functions and missions in the nation’s defense and its contribution to the region’s economy while protecting the quality of life within the locale.
iii. Partnering to Preserve Quality of Life and Resource Conservation: Preserve the appropriate state and regional stewards of the region’s natural resources, especially the fragile ecosystems within and surrounding the military installation by partnering to promote funding for land acquisition/land easements to conserve major sensitive environmental greenways, floodways, and other high priority conservation areas identified by the stewards of the state and regional ecosystems.
b. Identify Objectives for Resolving Encroachment Issues Described in the Data Inventory and Analysis. This section should identify encroachment issues to be resolved and an implementation schedule.
c. Identify Policies to Implement Each Objective, including:
i. Amendments to Comprehensive Plan Future Land Use Map, if any
ii. Amendments to Regulatory Land Use Controls
iii. Possible Implementing Rezonings
- √ Establish Military Influenced Lands (MIL) Zoning Overlay District and regulatory measures
- √ Identify MOA (Military Operations Area)
- √ Development Review Procedures
- √ Due Process Regulations, Public Awareness and Special Procedures
- ▪ Public Notice Requirements
- ▪ Web-Site Public Awareness
- ▪ Ex-Officio Military Representation on Planning Board
- ▪ Early Notification Process
- ▪ Effectuating Timely Participation and Response
- ▪ Conflict Resolution Mechanisms
iv. Subdivision Regulations Establishing Incentives for Clustered Development Removed from Severely Impacted Land
v. Restrict Use of Radio Frequency Spectrum Bands 5.4 -5.9 Ghz on Items such as Wireless LAN and Microwave Cordless Devices, including Garage Door Openers
d. Managing Impacts
i. Strategic Land Use Studies to Achieve Compatible Land Use
ii. Inform Public of Noise Zone Revisions
iii. Property Disclosure on Documents Advertising or Transferring Ownership of Impacted Property Located in CZ, APZ, and Noise Influenced Areas and Special Street Signage Noting Such Noise or Hazard Impacts
iv. Revisions to Construction Standards to Address Noise Attenuation
v. Land Acquisition, Land Swaps, Easement Acquisitions to Address Enclaves on Civilian Lands on the Lands Owned by the Military on- or off- the Base
vi. Collaborative Efforts to Mitigate Military Installation Impacts on Impacted Civilian Lands
vii. Revise Instrumentation &/or Physical Orientation of Military Airfield Take-Off & Landing Areas to Avoid High Threshold Noise
viii. Procedural Efforts to Improve Advance Planning for Development & Conservation
ix. Funding for Implementation